Guidelines for laying pavers

Delivery

Deliveries to your site incur additional costs which depend on the number of pavers ordered and the distance of your property from our factory.
When access permits, we will position the pallets on your property where you would like them. However, in certain circumstances delivery to the kerbside may be unavoidable. If the pallets are to be left on the nature strip, a permit may be required. If in doubt, contact your local council for advice.
After Delivery.

Once pavers have been delivered, we recommend that you take them off the pallets as soon as is convenient. Please don't use a wheelbarrow to move pavers around as this may inadvertently damage the pavers. Be careful to protect the edges and top faces of pavers when moving and restacking them. Handle your pavers with care, as they can develop hairline cracks, chip, or break if dropped. If you restack the pavers, stack them neatly on a stable and flat surface, with the 'top face' of a paver placed on the 'top face' of another paver, and the 'underneath' of one paver on the 'underneath' of another. Do not stack pavers in a criss-cross pattern. This further minimizes the possibility of damage to the pavers. Cover your pavers while they are being stored and waiting to be laid, so as to protect them from the weather. Pavers that are stored for extended periods may dry unevenly and this may cause shadowing and/or other marks. Any marks or shadowing that occurs as a result of restacking do not constitute a warranty claim.
When laying the pavers, take them randomly from different pallets (if you have more than one pallet to choose from) in order to ensure a natural blended look.
Please be mindful of the weight of the pavers. A paver measuring 500x500x40 weighs approximately 23 kgs. For your health and safety, we strongly recommend that large pavers are handled by two people.

Laying pavers

With careful planning your project will run smoother.
We recommend the use of professional installers to lay your pavers. Please view the installer's previous work as a guide to whether they are suitable for your project.
If you would prefer to lay your own pavers please thoroughly research the best options, methods and techniques appropriate to the individual requirements of your site. The following guidelines may be used as a starting point in your research.

The base

If the pavers are being laid as a driveway, the minimum Australian Standard for the sub-base is at least 100mm thick 25 Mpa cured concrete with F72 mesh.
If the pavers are being laid as a pedestrian area, the recommended sub-base is compacted crushed rock to a depth of 75mm. It would be preferable is this was stabilized with cement.
Engineers' advice should always be sought when designing concrete bases. Concrete foundations should include expansion and/or control joints.

Slope and Drainage

It is vitally important to have good drainage. A badly designed sub-base can create water retention, which can cause weathering of the pavers. Additionally, grouting solely with prepared sands may allow water to penetrate and pool in both the sub-base and the joints which can cause efflorescence and/or dark staining of the pavers.
Ensure that your outdoor flooring area is designed with rainwater run-off as a priority. Good design means that water and moisture are not trapped on the surface of the floor. This can be achieved with perfect levelness and effective slope. If required, different drainage surfaces can be designed into the floor field. If the drainage is not adequate dirt will build up and saltpeter efflorescence and rings may develop.
Suggested gradients are >1% for small areas, and >2% for larger areas.

Mortar bed

Pavers should be laid on a bed of 4 parts sand, 1 part per 100 lime, 1 part cement mortar, 1 part water, and bonding agent. A typical mortar bed is between 15-25 mm thick. Please ensure the sand is well graded and washed. Use only enough fresh clean water to make the mix workable. Too much water will decrease the strength of the mortar. The consistency of the mortar mix is sufficient when the paver is placed on the screed it does not settle. The surface of the mortar should be scored with a pattern or marked lightly. This enhances the bonding of the mortar and the paver.
The mortar should be mixed thoroughly. It should not have any lumps, and the material should be blended together completely. To achieve this result a paddle mixer or a barrel cement mixer may be used.
Please ensure your cement is of a good quality. We recommend General Purpose (GP) cement. Do NOT use blended cements. Follow the directions of the manufacturer of your cement, and be aware that it is not recommended to use cement products when the outside temperature is greater than 30°C.

Bonding slurry compound

Bonded slurry compound can be made with either cement and water, or cement and bonding agent. Mix well and with only just enough water to create a paste that is workable.
Placing pavers

  1. Ensure that the concrete slab is also free of dust and debris. The slab can be swept and hosed if required. Etching and bonding of the slab will assist in eliminating dust and will increase adhesion.

  2. Dampen the area of concrete where you are about to lay pavers.

  3. Next place a 20mm thick layer of mortar mix on the concrete slab. Ensure the mortar is evenly spread and that there are no voids.

  4. Check that the base of the paver is clean. If necessary clean with a wire brush to remove any dust or scale. Before placing any pavers you have cut, rinse off any residue or sediment thoroughly. Failure to rinse off residue or sediment may result in staining. Applying bonding agent to the base of the paver will increase adhesion.

  5. Carefully bed down the paver with a good quality rubber mallet. Use a White mallet for light coloured pavers and a black one for darker colours. It is vital to make sure that no air voids exist under the paver as these may mean the paver is not fully supported and may cause the paver to not adhere properly.

  6. Tap the paver into place.

  7. Fill any voids with a trowel. Remove and discard any excess mortar.

  8. Using clean water and a clean sponge wipe the surface of the paver to remove any excess material. Work cleanly.

  9. Work in small controlled areas to ensure that the pavers are laid before the mortar dries.


Cutting pavers

Ideally, pavers should be cut with a bench stone saw and a wet diamond blade. Alternatively, a grinder with a diamond or masonry cutting blade may also be used. Wash your paver immediately after cutting to avoid stains that may be caused by the cutting paste.
Safety when cutting pavers
Respiratory, eye and ear protection are essential when cutting pavers. Crystalline silica, a mineral found on earth, is a component of concrete. Minute particles of this crystalline silica are present in concrete dust, which is created when cutting pavers. Health issues may result from long term exposure to these particles as a consequence of breathing them into the lungs. Dust masks, safety goggles, and ear muffs should be worn when cutting pavers.

Around swimming pools

It is recommended that pavers surrounding swimming pools are laid on concrete slabs. This helps to prevent any differential movement that may occur between the pool and the paving. Ensure that there is an expansion joint between the pool coping and the paving, or the pool and the paving. A sealer that is both anti-slip and penetrating should be used to seal all areas around pools. This is especially important for areas around salt water pools.

Expansion joints

In addition to the expansion joints around pools mentioned above, there should be an expansion joint approximately every 4-5 metres. These should match the existing joints of the underlying concrete slab and should be placed as specified by engineers/contractors. The relevant Australian standards should be adhered to at all times.
Expansion joints should not have any grout or mortar in them. Flexible mastic can be used to fill the joint and keep dirt and debris out. For further information regarding flexible mastic we recommend you consult the manufacturer.

After laying pavers

Do not place any load on paved pedestrian areas for at least 48 hours.
Do not place any load on paved areas of where the pavers have been laid with mortar on a concrete base for at least 3 weeks after the job has been completed.

Grouting

  1. Pavers and grout joints should be wet prior to grouting. Etching and sealing prior to grouting is recommended for ease of clean up. Please refer to the following two sections for guidelines.

  2. Grout your pavers with a stiff mix. Stiff mix can be made with washed sand and cement in a ratio of 3:1, or you can use a grouting compound which is pre-bagged.

  3. This mix can be trowelled into joints, or you could use a grout gun or alternatively a wet slurry mix. Joints to be grouted in this way should be between 7-10mm.

  4. Ensure that grout has no voids and that it extends along the entire depth of the paver.

  5. After using a squeegee to fill the joints, trowel away any excess.

  6. Using clean water and a clean sponge, clean the paver. Remove all excess grout. It is essential that ALL EXCESS GROUT MUST BE CLEANED FROM PAVERS IMMEDIATELY. This avoids sticking or staining. Please be advised that grouting sands and/or grouts that are polymer based may leave transparent stains if they are not thoroughly removed when cleaning excess grout from pavers.


The colour of the grout can be adjusted by choosing white or grey cement or adding oxide. We recommend that you always complete a small test area first, to ensure the cured colour of the grout is appropriate.

Cleaning

When you have laid and grouted your pavers and the grout has cured, we recommend you wash your pavers. We recommend that you work in small areas of no more than 3 or 4 meters. Wash thoroughly as you go.

Sealing

Sealing your pavers is optional. The advantage to sealing is that cleaning pavers will be easier. Sealing will also provide some protection from oil based stains. Ensure that all residue from the cleaning process has been removed. When sealing pavers, we recommend the use of a high quality penetrating sealer. If the pavers are around a pool, we recommend a penetrating sealer that is anti-slip. For more information regarding sealers and the process of sealing pavers please contact us.

Warranty

Pavers from Premier Pavers are covered by a twelve month warranty against faulty workmanship or materials. Warranty claims must be made in writing. Premier Pavers' liability for any valid warranty claim is to replace the defective paver/s. Consequential losses claims and/or liability that relate to the delivery, replacement or relaying of pavers will not be accepted by Premier Pavers. It is the purchaser's responsibility to inspect all of the pavers after delivery. Discrepancies must be reported within 2 working days. Small chipping and minor marks are not considered defects as they are not structural. Pavers with variations in thickness of +/- 3mm, deflection of +/- 2mm and/or excessive chipping may be subject to a warranty claim.

Please note that as concrete pavers are made with naturally occurring materials, there may be occasional variation in surface finish and/or colour.

Disclaimer

This guideline is a collation of good installation procedures, however it does not constitute a warranty, nor is it the only method possible for the installation, finish and maintenance of pavers.

We recommend that this guideline is used alongside the relevant Australian Standards. This guideline is provided in good faith and represents our experience and knowledge.
This guideline does not take the place of the services and advice of professional consultants and/or contractors.

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